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Yep, it's the same reason golf balls have dimples, to break up the low pressure area trailing a sphere. A big, flat tail has an even larger low pressure system. A low pressure system 'pulls' - like the aerodynamics of an airplane wing, the low pressure is on top of the wing.

The problem for the truck driver is that he doesn't know a small car is back there, he does know if another truck is following him.

My basic theory of life is the do unto others thing. I hate being tailgated, so I don't do it to others.
 

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Trailer aerodynamics (getting long)

My guess is that the problem would be to securely attach it to the trailer after each trip, and remove it for loading/unloading. Then there's the 'where do you store it' problem. Many places don't have a secure place to leave it laying around - lots of thieves out there. You can't put it on top of the trailer, since there isn't always clearance.

Then again, who pays for it? Often, the trailer needing the mod is owned by a company and the truck burning the fuel is owned by an independant that pulls a different trailer each time.

You can't change the shape of the trailer, you loose space. Another mod would be the 'reverse spoiler' thing you see on vans. It scoops air down the flat back of the vehicle to minimize the size of the low pressure system. Of courst, there's the added clearance issue. This could be done without loosing space, at least on trailers with 'lift style' doors - there's a bit of wasted space in that top corner to build in a scoop.

Then again, a piece of sheetmetal scooping air from underneath would work pretty well, too. I'd think a simple 'V' shape to funnel the wind to the center would drive the low pressure system low enough to minimize it fairly effectively for the price involved. The biggest issue, as far as I can tell without a wind tunnel (AFAICTWOAWT?), is the size of the flat back of the trailer. It's a big area to create turbulence in to break the low pressure system.

Anyone have access to a wind tunnel - on an unofficial capacity, of course. I don't want to share my patent. ;^]

*wanders over to the drafting table*
 
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